Abstract

Blends of Tallow and Coconut Oil as Lipids for Soap Production, and Use of Wood Charcoal as Green Deodourizer for Animal Fat

Halliru Ibrahim*1, Ahmed G. Abdulkadir2, Christiana A. Kendeson2, Muslimat Aliyu1, Ogidi A Ogidi2, Nathaniel Sunday Samuel2 and Obiagwu I. Chinwendu3

1Department of Chemistry, School of Secondary Education (Science), Federal College of Education (Tech.), P.M.B. 1088, Gusau, Zamfara State. NIGERIA. 2Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, P.M.B. 0182, Gombe, Gombe State. NIGERIA. 3Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B. 1526, Imo State. NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT

Soaps are the sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids, prepared by the saponification reaction of oil (lipids) with caustic soda (NaOH). However, different oils have different composition of fatty acids; which are responsible for different properties of soaps made from them. In this work; two different types of lipids i.e. tallow, and coconut oil were used. An initial application of wood charcoal as green deodourizer for tallow resulted to phenomenal claim of the charcoal as viable substitute for either expensive/toxic perfume or bleaching, as remedial process for the foul smell of animal fat. It was observed that with powdered charcoal, the fine surface area of dispersion is not responsible in the efficiency of wood charcoal as deodourizer. Rather, the large pores on the amorphous shape of wood charcoal are responsible for the adsorption of the volatile components liable for offensive smell of saponified animal fat. The two lipid sources were blended in three different ratios of 80:20, 50:50 and 20:80 for tallow:coconut oil respectively; and saponified with sodium hydroxide. Preliminary physicochemical properties of the soap samples prepared were analyzed. Percentage moisture content, hardness, foam stability, free alkali, cleansing and lathering properties of all samples were compared. The lipids blend at 80:20 ratio was established to be the best; with average foam stability of 2.00 and lowest moisturecontent of 8.20%. The moisture content confirmed complete saponification reaction and long shelf life of the soap. The soaps from the blends might have no adverse effect on cloth or skin, as the amount of free caustic alkalinity was below standard limits when compared with those given in the literature.

Keywords :Caustic soda, coconut oil, green deodourizer, soap, tallow, wood charcoal.